EARLYWOOD AND LAKEWOOD PDF!
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Sylvie Gauthier and Yves Bergeron Received: Throughout much of eastern North America, quantitative records of historical fire regimes and interactions with humans are absent.
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Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data on fire frequency, extent, and severity, but also can be used to understand fire-climate-human interactions. This study used tree-ring dated fire scars from red pines Pinus resinosa at four sites in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin to quantify the interactions among fire occurrence and seasonality, drought, and humans.
New methods for assessing the influence of human ignitions on fire regimes were developed. Fire intervals earlywood and lakewood through time with human activities that included early French Jesuit missions, European trade furdiseases, war, and land use.
Comparisons of historical fire records suggest that annual climate in this region has a broad influence on the occurrence of fire years in the Great Lakes region.
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Introduction In much of eastern North America, the quantitative data describing historical fire regimes over the last several centuries hinge on fire-scarred wood and trees. Annual resolution fire scar histories provide data and perspective on past fire intervals, fire extent, fire severity, and forcing factors that inform forest management and restoration [ 1 ].
For fire history, northern Wisconsin is a unique study region because of the considerable body of early written human history and the abundance of dateable and fire scarred wood.
With these sources, excellent potential exists to study interactions among humans, climate, and fire. Although droughts tend to occur infrequently in this cool-wet climate region, they have been earlywood and lakewood with occurrences of high severity and culturally significant fire events e.
Attribute data from the s General Land Office survey notes describe the historically complex vegetation patterning of northern Wisconsin ecosystems and the influence of drought and fire [ 23 ]. Multi-century fire scar records in the Great Lakes Region indicate that increased fire frequency, extent, and severity were associated with both past drought conditions and human activity [ 45 ].
Predisposing factors such as drought and weather combined with frequent e. Depending on the ignition source, fire scars on trees can be viewed as both natural and cultural resources. In many forested ecosystems with hundreds, if not thousands, of years of human activity, a large proportion of basal injuries can result from human ignitions [ 89 ].
In the case where probability for anthropogenic ignitions is high, ecosystem conditions may be byproducts of human activity. Landscapes cultured by anthropogenic fire are recognized throughout North America [ 101112 ]. Before about CE, reliable records of early human population, cultures, and fire are difficult to obtain or are unavailable for much of North America.
In the Great Lakes region, early and literate travelers Jesuits missionaries and French traders provided records of population, culture, and trade [ 9 ]. These records are earlywood and lakewood important for understanding historical fire regimes since changes in populations and cultures often coincide with changes in fire frequency [ 101112 ].
Thus, considering human history in analyses of fire regimes and fire ecology is imperative, earlywood and lakewood in regions where anthropogenic fire has been deemed an important ignition source [ 1213 ].
During at least the last three and a half centuries, historical records indicate that the Great Lakes region has been influenced by diverse cultures and population densities [ 1415 ].
Generally, significant environmental changes occurred in response to cultures switching from subsistence to market economies [ 16 ]. Driven by distant European markets, the trade of animal furs had an early and widespread influence on the number and locations of humans in this region [ 17 ].
Fire regimes changed in a multitude of ways during European settlement and development.
Increased wildfire activity occurred, particularly along earlywood and lakewood due to increased ignitions embers from wood- and charcoal-burning railroad engines, sparks from railroad tracks, deliberate burning to clear lands by prospective farmers while decreased fire activity occurred with EuroAmerican settlements e.
The primary objective of this study was to describe and quantify the historical fire regime characteristics in the Northern Sands Ecological Landscapes of Wisconsin [ 20 ]. The second objective was to examine the relative influences of climate and humans on fire regimes.
What is the difference between early wood and late wood?
Data and Methods 2. The climate of northern Wisconsin is characterized as humid-continental with cold winters and warm summers [ 21 ]. The three eastern-most sites have a mean maximum temperature of
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