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Concubinage was nearly a taboo in the Central Valley as was prostitution and thus offers one means of measuring stigmatization as it applied to woman living out of wedlock.

Furthermore, general histories of Puntarenas are also scarce. Sources Gathering primary material for this study was hindered gaceta oficial 39486 the absence of some municipal files due to a fire in in the building that housed the municipal archives in Puntarenas. In addition, a fire in the principal Catholic church in Puntarenas destroyed demographic data on nineteenth century inhabitants of the port.

The published population censuses of,and gaceta oficial 39486, available at the SIBL in New York City, have yielded demographic material on male-female ratios, marriage patterns, household sizes, immigration rates, and racial composition. The Ministerios de Fomento Development Ministry and Hacienda y Comercio Treasury and Commerce tracked commercial, maritime, and fiscal activity in the port.

The Ministerio de Fomento conducted two commercial censuses for —08 andpublished by the OEC, which list businesses in Puntarenas, names and nationalities of owners, and amounts of local taxation for each.

This data is especially valuable for constructing social and economic networks, for assessing the reliance of the municipality on revenue from establishments related to prostitution such as bars and dancehalls, and for determining the close working relationships prostitutes had to mainstream businesses in the port.

The Judicial Section of the Archivo Nacional de Costa Rica ANCR contains court records of crimes committed by registered and unregistered prostitutes, as well as lawsuits initiated by prostitutes and other working class women of the port. Therefore, court cases provide some of the most direct evidence of the conditions and voices of working class women.

Many such priests came from neighboring countries, were moved around within the peripheries and were rarely assigned to parishes in the Central Valley.


Social issues such as prostitution were discussed mostly in a legal context, making these sources, not unlike the Memorias, more a reflection of elite whitewashing than the reality of the streets. Theory The variety of avenues necessary to enter the terrains of work, gender and sexuality in a peripheral region little analyzed by historians necessitates a consideration of disparate theories.

To recount the general story of prostitution in Puntarenas, this section will concentrate on three topics—region, labor and prostitution in Latin America—as a way of establishing a context for understanding the evidence uncovered in the proceeding chapters.

A lengthy analysis links prostitution in Puntarenas to themes of work and stigma as theorized in the scholarship on prostitution in Costa Rica, in Latin America, and in the world. Region The theoretical literature on differential regional development in Latin America received one of its first big advances from historian Charles Gibson, followed by a group gaceta oficial 39486 regional historians, whose studies of New Spain in the colonial period showed that vast region to have been a patchwork quilt of diverse economic and social developments shaped, in large measure, by demography and markets.

Anthropological approaches pioneered by Eric Wolf and Sidney Mintz connected the patches by taking the view that regions are not isolated, that they are parts of other regions, and that their links are articulated by the flow of commodities.

Consequently, both center and gaceta oficial 39486, as a result of different economic relationships to the same commodity—coffee—followed somewhat separate courses of political and socioeconomic development. Studies have approached the relations of peripheries and centers according to a broad range of factors, which include not only commodity flows, but also geography, transportation links and ethnicity.

Gaceta Oficial Nº 39.486 del Jueves 12 de Agosto de 2010

Sociologist Stein Rokkan, writing in the s, outlined the features of a center-periphery paradigm as a tool for the analysis of variation among political systems. For this study, it seems apt for plotting the evolution of pluralism in a country where the traditional emphasis has been on a single process of political, gaceta oficial 39486 and social development.


The center and periphery were cemented with the completion of the railroad inbefore which coffee was transported by oxcart on a road which was often impassable during the rainy season from June to December.

A second involves the periphery refusing to be treated with disinterest. The center maintains itself by giving gaceta oficial 39486 periphery another type of power. Lerner offers a caveat regarding technological change which can open up communication links too rapidly.

The faster geographical distances are eliminated, the more social differences can be attitudinally exaggerated.


Yet, the liberal project of the center, which included programs of social cleansing for urban areas, as well as the emphasis on the family, were, for the most part, unimposable in the port.

In the port, while criminality and some public health problems were dealt with by the establishment of a new penitentiary and half-hearted attempts at regular medical check-ups for prostitutes, the coming of the railroad gaceta oficial 39486, along with an increase in trade and traffic, a tourist boom generated by wealthy families from the Central Plateau building vacation homes along the shoreline.

Gaceta Oficial Nº del Jueves 12 de Agosto de |

Prostitutes now had an additional base of customers— men who not only slipped away from their wives to engage the services of prostitutes, but who slipped away from the ethical code of the liberal state of the interior.

As in pre-Castro Havana, as in Las Vegas, Puntarenas was a playground where the rules could be broken, where vice was accepted and celebrated. The trade-off was acceptable to both sides.

Free Labor As stated earlier, the idea of difference was not valued in the highlands where gaceta oficial 39486 culture of coffee dictated homogeneous national values. The liberal state went to great lengths to extol the virtues of sameness in order to stabilize a labor force over which it had little formal control.

What accounts for this lack of formal control over labor?

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