Lanthanoid, also called lanthanide, any of the series of 15 consecutive chemical elements in the periodic table from lanthanum to lutetium (atomic numbers 57–71). With scandium and yttrium, they make up the rare-earth metals. The rare earth elements (or rare earth metals) include the elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, and, named in order, are lanthanum (La), cerium (Ce), praseodymium (Pr), neodymium (Nd), promethium (Pm), samarium (Sm), europium (Eu), gadolinium (Gd), terbium (Tb), dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er). Here's a list of elements that are lanthanides, a subset of the rare earth group of elements. Also learn about lanthanide properties.


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The commercial mining of monazite sands in the United States is centered in Florida and the Carolinas Xenotime: This allows for more nuclear stability, as explained in the Lanthanide elements rule.

The Oddo-Harkins rule simply states that the abundance of elements with an even atomic number is greater than the abundance of elements with an odd atomic number.


In order to obtain these elements, the minerals must go through a separating lanthanide elements, known as separation chemistry.

This can be done with selective reduction or oxidation. Another possibility is an ion-exchange method. Among the most reactive of the lanthanides, it decomposes rapidly in hot water, but more slowly in cold water.

Lanthanum also reacts readily with oxygen, and corrodes quickly in moist air.

Lanthanide Series |

As with cerium, lanthanum is used in misch metal. Because lanthanum compounds bring about special optical qualities in glass, it also lanthanide elements for the manufacture of specialized lenses.

In addition, compounds of lanthanum with fluorine or oxygen are used in making carbon-arc lamps for the motion picture industry. While analyzing an oxide formed from lanthanide inMosander decided that he had a new element on his hands, which he called didymium.

Four decades later, Boisbaudran took another look at didynium, and concluded that it was not an element; rather, it contained an element, which he named samarium after the mineral samarskite, in which it is found.

Still later, Marignac was studying samarskite when he discovered what came to be known as gadolinium. But the story did not end there: Samarium is applied today in nuclear power plant control rods, in carbon-arc lamps, and in optical masers and lasers. In alloys with cobalt, it is used in manufacturing the most permanent electromagnets available.

Samarium is also utilized in the manufacture of optical glass, and as a catalyst in the production of ethyl alcohol. lanthanide elements


To return to Mosander, he was examining ytterite in when he identified three different "earths," all of which he also named after Ytterby: Erbium was the first to be extracted. A pure sample of lanthanide elements oxide was prepared in by French chemist Georges Urbain and American chemist Charles Jamesbut the pure metal itself was only extracted in Soft and malleable, with a lustrous silvery color, erbium produces salts which are usually combinations of a metal with a nonmetal that are pink and rose, making it useful as a tinting agent.

One of its oxides is utilized, for instance, to tint glass and porcelain with a pinkish cast.

Lanthanides: Properties and Reactions

It is also applied, to a limited extent, in the nuclear power industry. Mosander also identified another element, terbium, in ytterite inand Marignac isolated it in a purer form nearly half a century later, in To repeat a common theme, it is silvery-gray and soft enough to be cut with a knife.

Rare earth elements lanthanide elements separated from other elements in a mineral by precipitation with a suitable reagent. Separation lanthanide elements the rare earth elements from each other by ordinary chemical means is difficult because their chemical properties are similar, and the isolation of an individual element may involve hundreds of fractional crystallizations.

With the use of ion-exchange methods the separation of an individual rare earth element can be accomplished with greater ease and precision.


Did you lanthanide elements that those magnets are so strong that sometimes they jump across the room to lanthanide elements each other? Lesson Summary The lanthanide series, generally shown at the bottom of the periodic table, contains 15 elements with similar properties.

However, if not referring to their natural abundance, but rather to their property of "hiding" lanthanide elements each other in minerals, this interpretation is in fact appropriate.

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