Se trata de la llamada navaja de Ockham, principio de economía o principio de parsimonia (Audi, ), atribuido a Guillermo de Ockham , según. principle principio (т) де consistencia - consistency principle principio de los (m) de la normalización - normalization principle principio (m) de la parsimonia. Permite al facilitador y/o dise ador del proyecto de planeación ofrecer una permite al facilitador aplicar el principio de parsimonia al análisis de la situación.


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History[ edit ] The term Occam's razor did not appear until a few centuries after William of Ockham 's death in Libert Froidmontin his On Christian Philosophy of the Soul, takes credit for the phrase, speaking of "novacula principio de parsimonia.

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Marianus Fernandez Garciap. AD stated, "We consider it a good principle to explain the phenomena by the simplest hypothesis possible. For if one thing were demonstrated from many and another thing from fewer equally known premises, clearly that is better which is from fewer because it makes us know quickly, just as a principio de parsimonia demonstration is better than particular because it produces knowledge from fewer premises.

Similarly in natural science, in moral science, and in metaphysics the best is that which needs no premises and the principio de parsimonia that which needs the fewer, other circumstances being equal. William of Ockham[ edit ] William of Ockham circa — was an English Franciscan friar and theologianan influential medieval philosopher and a nominalist.

His popular fame as a great logician rests chiefly on the maxim attributed to him and known as Occam's razor. The term razor refers to distinguishing between two hypotheses principio de parsimonia by "shaving away" unnecessary assumptions or cutting apart two similar conclusions.

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While it has been claimed that Occam's razor is not found in any of William's writings, [15] one can cite statements such as Numquam ponenda est pluralitas sine necessitate [Plurality must never be posited without necessity], which occurs in his theological work principio de parsimonia the 'Sentences of Peter Lombard' Quaestiones et decisiones in quattuor libros Sententiarum Petri Lombardi ed.

Nevertheless, the precise words sometimes attributed to William of Ockham, entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem entities must not be multiplied beyond necessity[16] are absent in his extant works; [17] this particular phrasing comes from John Punch[18] who described the principle as a "common axiom" axioma vulgare of the Scholastics.

Later formulations[ edit ] To quote Isaac Newton"We are to admit no more causes of natural things than such as are both true and sufficient to explain their appearances. Therefore, to the same natural effects we must, as far as possible, assign the same causes.

The only assumption is that the environment follows some unknown but computable probability distribution.


This theory is a mathematical formalization of Occam's razor. This is considered a strong version of Occam's razor.

This notion was deeply rooted in the aesthetic value that simplicity holds for human thought and the justifications presented for it often drew from theology.

Thomas Aquinas made this argument in the principio de parsimonia century, writing, "If a thing can be done adequately by means of one, it is superfluous to do it by means of several; for we observe that nature does not employ two instruments [if] one suffices.

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In the related concept of principio de parsimoniaexcessively complex models are affected by statistical noise a problem also known as the bias-variance trade-offwhereas simpler models may capture the underlying structure better and may thus have better predictive performance.

It is, however, often difficult to deduce which part of the data is noise cf. Testing the razor[ principio de parsimonia ] The razor's statement that "other things being equal, simpler explanations are generally better than more complex ones" is amenable to empirical testing.

Another interpretation of the razor's statement would be that "simpler hypotheses are generally better than the complex ones".

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  • Occam's razor - Wikipedia

The procedure to test the former interpretation would compare the track records of simple and comparatively complex explanations. If one accepts the first interpretation, the validity of Occam's razor as a tool would then have to be rejected if the more complex explanations were more often correct than the principio de parsimonia complex ones while the converse would lend support to its use.

Occam's razor

If the latter interpretation is accepted, the validity of Occam's razor principio de parsimonia a tool could possibly be accepted if the simpler hypotheses led to correct conclusions more often than not.

Possible explanations can become needlessly complex. It is coherent, for instance, to add the involvement of leprechauns to any explanation, but Occam's razor would prevent such additions unless they were necessary.


Some increases in complexity are sometimes necessary. So there remains a justified general bias toward the simpler of two competing explanations. To understand why, consider that for each accepted principio de parsimonia of a phenomenon, there is always an infinite number of possible, more complex, and ultimately incorrect, alternatives.

This is so because one can always burden a failing explanation with an ad hoc hypothesis.

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